Professional Education makes up 40% of the exam and covers areas such as:
- Teaching Profession; Social Dimension of Education
- Principles of Teaching, Educationl Technology, Curriculumn Development
- Facilitating Learning, Child and Adolescent Development
- Assesment of Student Learning, Developmental Reading
- Field Study, Practice Teaching
1. Answer: C. Yes
Enactive stage: In the enactive stage, learners learn through direct experience. Mrs. Domingo's use of the pizza and the wooden circles allowed her students to experience fractions concretely. They could see how the pizza could be divided into two halves and then into four quarters. This helped them understand the concept of fractions in a way that would have been impossible if she had explained it to them verbally.
Iconic stage: In the iconic stage, learners learn through symbols. Mrs. Domingo's use of the fractions 1/2, 2/4, and 3/4 on the board helped her students to represent fractions symbolically. This allowed them to think about fractions more abstractly and see how they could be used to represent different parts of a whole.
Symbolic stage: In the symbolic stage, learners learn through language. Mrs. Domingo's final activity, in which she asked her students to explain the meaning of the fractions she had written on the board, helped her students to understand fractions at a symbolic level. They could use language to communicate their understanding of fractions and relate them to other mathematical concepts.
2. Answer: C. Comprehension
In Bloom's taxonomy of objectives, the term "paraphrase" falls under the domain of Cognitive - "Comprehension." Comprehension is the second level in Bloom's taxonomy. It involves grasping the meaning of information, restating it in one's own words, and interpreting the content in a way that demonstrates understanding. When students are asked to paraphrase Robert Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," they are expected to comprehend the poem's content and express it in their own language without changing its meaning.
3. Answer: C. Yes
Mrs. Domingo's lesson on fractions conforms to the bottom-up arrangement of the learning experiences in Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience.
Concrete experiences: Mrs. Domingo started her lesson by giving her students a concrete experience of fractions by having them divide a pizza into two halves. This allowed her students to see and understand how fractions can be used to represent parts of a whole.
Pictorial representations: Mrs. Domingo then used visual representations of fractions, such as wooden circles divided into 2, 3, and 4 parts, to help her students visualize fractions. This allowed her students to see how fractions can be represented visually.
Verbal symbols: Finally, Mrs. Domingo used verbal symbols, such as 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4, to represent fractions. This allowed her students to understand how fractions can be represented in a symbolic way.
4. Answer: B. Z-score
Z-scores are a type of standard score that is used to tell the location of a score in a normal distribution. Z-scores, also known as standard scores, are used to determine the location of a specific score in a normal distribution relative to the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ). A positive Z-score indicates the score is above the mean, a negative Z-score indicates it is below the mean, and a Z-score of 0 means the score is at the mean.
The other choices are incorrect: Standard scores are a general term for any type of standardized score, such as Z-scores. Percentile ranks tell the percentage of people who scored lower than a particular score. T-scores are a type of standard score that is used in some psychological tests.
5. Answer: D. Post Conventional Level
Pre-conventional level is the lowest level of moral development. At this level, people make moral decisions based on rewards and punishments. They believe that it is right to do something if it will lead to a reward or avoid a punishment.
Conventional level is the middle level of moral development. At this level, people make moral decisions based on what their family, friends, or society expects of them. They believe it is right to do something if it is expected of them.
Post-conventional level is the highest level of moral development. People make moral decisions based on their beliefs and principles at this level. They believe it is right to do something if it is in accordance with their moral code.
6. Answer: D. Detail-orientation Function
Intuitive functions: The right hemisphere is associated with intuitive thinking and creativity. It is also involved in spatial reasoning and the ability to see the big picture.
Visual functions: The right hemisphere is responsible for processing visual information. It is also involved in the ability to recognize faces and objects.
Nonverbal functions: The right hemisphere is involved in understanding and processing nonverbal communication. This includes body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice.
7. Answer: B. Did the teacher cover easy materials for the tasked posed by the item?
In judging content validity, it is essential to ensure that the items accurately represent the content or construct being measured by the assessment. Options A, C, and D are all good criteria to consider for content validity:
8. Answer: A. Superego
The voiceless voice from within you is your Superego. The Superego is the part of your personality responsible for your conscience. The voice tells you what is right and wrong, and it helps you control your impulses.
Freud's Theory of Psychoanalysis:
The Conscious Mind: This represents the part of the mind that contains thoughts, feelings, and perceptions currently in our awareness. It includes everything we are currently aware of and can readily access.
The Preconscious Mind: This part of the mind contains thoughts, memories, and information that are not currently in our awareness but can be easily brought into consciousness with minimal effort.
The Unconscious Mind: The unconscious is the most significant and crucial part of Freud's theory. It contains repressed memories, desires, instincts, and emotions not directly accessible to the conscious mind. Freud believed these hidden contents influence our thoughts, feelings, and behavior, often without us being aware.
The Id: The Id is the primitive and instinctual part of the mind that operates on the pleasure principle. It seeks immediate gratification of basic needs and desires without considering consequences or social norms. The Id operates entirely in the unconscious mind.
The Ego: The Ego is the part of the mind that operates on the reality principle. It seeks to balance the Id's desires with the demands of reality and the Superego. The Ego operates in all three levels of the mind (conscious, preconscious, and unconscious). It helps mediate between the different aspects of the mind.
The Superego: The Superego represents the internalized moral standards, values, and ideals of society, as well as parental and cultural influences. It acts as the conscience, guiding and regulating an individual's behavior based on what is morally right or wrong. The Superego operates primarily at the unconscious level.
Defense Mechanisms: Freud proposed various defense mechanisms that the Ego uses to cope with internal conflicts and protect itself from anxiety. Some common defense mechanisms include repression, denial, projection, and displacement.
9. Answer: C. Diagnostic
Diagnostic evaluation is used to identify students' learning difficulties, strengths, and weaknesses. It is typically conducted before or at the beginning of instruction to diagnose specific areas where students may need additional support or intervention. Diagnostic evaluation helps educators understand students' individual needs and design targeted instructional strategies to address their learning difficulties.
Formative evaluation: This type of evaluation occurs during the learning process to provide feedback and monitor students' progress. It helps educators make instructional adjustments to improve student learning while the instruction is still ongoing.
Summative evaluation: Summative evaluation takes place at the end of a learning period and assesses students' overall achievement or performance. It is used to judge the instructional program's effectiveness and determine whether students have achieved the learning objectives.
Placement evaluation: Placement evaluation determines the appropriate educational setting or level for students, such as deciding which grade or class they should be placed in based on their abilities and skills.
10. Answer: B. Imitation
Imitation is the process of learning by observing and copying the behavior of others. This is the most common way young people learn their culture's mores and traditions.
Indoctrination is the process of teaching someone a set of beliefs or ideas, often without allowing them to question or challenge those beliefs.
Inculcation is the process of embedding something in someone's mind, often through repetition.
Telling is the process of communicating information to someone verbally. While these processes may be involved in learning mores and traditions, they are not the primary way this learning takes place.